2013/04/10

Ten Kings of Hell

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Juu Oo 十王, Juo, Ju-O - 10 Ten Kings of Hell
Ten Yama Kings



source : city.numata.gunma.jp

- Juuoozu 十王図 paintings of the 10 kings - With Jizo Bosatsu in the middle, there are

秦広王・初江王・宋帝王・五官王・閻魔王・変成王・泰山王・平等王・都市王・五道転輪王

Each of these kings has a representative in the Buddhist pantheon
and is responsible for a set of seven days after death:
(Click on each image for more photos.)



Shinkoo oo 秦広王 (不動明王 Fudo Myo-O)
first seven days 初七日(7日目・6日後)



Shokoo oo 初江王 (釈迦如来 Shaka Nyorai)
second seven days 二七日(14日目・13日後)



Sootei oo 宋帝王 (文殊菩薩 Monju Bosatsu)
third seven days 三七日(21日目・20日後)



Gokan oo 五官王 (普賢菩薩 Fugen Bosatsu)
fourth seven days 四七日(28日目・27日後)



Enma oo - Emma  閻魔王 (地蔵菩薩 Jizo Bosatsu)
fifth seven days 五七日(35日目・34日後)

. Enma, Emma 閻魔天、閻魔王 Yama-raja, King of Hell .




Henjoo oo 変成王 (弥勒菩薩 Miroku Bosatsu)
sixth seven days 六七日(42日目・41日後)



Daizan oo 泰山王 (薬師如来 Yakushi Nyorai)
seventh seven days 七七日(49日目・48日後)

(after 49 days, the soul leaves this world and goes to the other world.



Hyoodoo oo 平等王 (観音菩薩 Kannon Bosatsu)
100 days after death 百か日(100日目・99日後)



Toshi oo 都市王 (勢至菩薩 Seishi Bosatsu)
first death aniversary 一周忌(2年目・1年後)



Godoo tenrin oo 五道転輪王 (阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai)
third death aniversary 三回忌(3年目・2年後)


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quote
Jū-ō (Juo) 十王 TEN JUDGES OF HELL
The Jū-ō (lit. = 10 kings) concept is based on Chinese Taoism and was introduced to Japan during the Heian Period (794-1185 AD). In Kamakura, it flourished in the 14th century, and seems to be the Buddhist counterpart of the Roman Catholic concept of purgatory, the latter stemming in large part from Dante's Inferno. According to the Juo teachings, a wicked person goes to hell after death while a good person goes to paradise. Those whose fate is not yet certain after their death are subject to weekly trials, during which their deeds while living are determined and classified. They are judged by the Ten Kings (the Juo) in the courts of the netherworld.
source : Mark Schumacher



quote
Ten Courts of Hell in China
The concept of the "Ten Courts of Hell" began after Chinese folk religions were influenced by Buddhism. In Chinese mythology, the Jade Emperor put King Yama in charge of overseeing the affairs of Diyu. There are 12,800 hells located under the earth - eight dark hells, eight cold hells and 84,000 miscellaneous hells located at the edge of the universe.



All will go to Diyu (jigoku 地獄) after death but the period of time one spends in Diyu depends on the severity of the sins he or she has committed, and after receiving due punishment, he or she will eventually be sent for reincarnation. In the meantime, souls will pass from stage to stage at the decision of Yama. Yama also reduced the number of hells to ten. He later divided Diyu into ten courts, each overseen by a "Yama King", while he remained as the sovereign ruler of Diyu.
source : wikipedia



quote- Daoism
Origin of the Yamas of the Ten Hells
The Yamas were also known as the Kings of Hell ( 閰羅王 Yanluo Wang ) or Kings of Souls. Originally, Yama was a Chinese rendering of the Sanskrit word Yanmo or Yan Moluo. In Indian mythical stories, Yama, along with his sister, acted as the ruler of hell where he controlled male souls and his sister dealt with female souls. As the ruler as well as controller of hell, Yama started to become popular in China during the Southern and Northern dynasties. Originally, there was only one Yama. But owing to his increasing functions, he was transformed into five Yamas, assisted by 18 aides.

During the Tang dynasty, it became popular that the Heavenly Emperor issued the designation for Yama and conferred on him the privilege of controlling soldiers at the Five Sacred Mountains, and that hell consisted of ten hells, which were ruled respectively by ten kings. They were known as the Ten Kings of Hell ( 地府十王 Difu Shiwang ). Each of the Ten Kings had his own name as well as title.
Their general title was 'Yamas of the Ten Halls' ( 十殿閰王 Shidian Yanwang ).
source : en.daoinfo.org/wiki

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source : info.pref.fukui.jp/bunka/bunkazai

木造 十王像 - Wooden statues of the 10 kings of hell

Echizen Town 越前市
Important Treasures of Fukui Prefecture - 福井県内の文化財


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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -


. juuoo moode 十王詣(じゅうおうもうで) visiting the 10 Kings of Hell .
kigo for late summer

juuoo mairi 十王詣(じゅうおうまいり)First visit to the 10 kings of hell
kigo for the New Year

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毛虫焼く十王像を見たる後
kemushi yaku juu oo zoo o mitaru ato

burning a hairy caterpillar
after I have seen the statues
of 10 Kings of Hell


Sano Kazue 佐野一恵


. WKD : kemushi 毛虫 hairy caterpillar .


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1 comment:

Gabi Greve said...

Yagyu Jubei and the 妖怪 Yokai appearance
When Jubei stayed over night at the temple for the 10 Kings of Hell, 日光の十王堂 Juo-Do in Nikko, late at night 閻羅王 Enma, the King of Hell, came out and asked him the time.
Jubei kept his cool, just told him the time and went back to sleep.
.
https://edoflourishing.blogspot.jp/2017/05/yagyu-clan-legends.html
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