2017/12/31

Welcome to Paradise !

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Welcome to Gokuraku 極楽 the Buddhist Paradise !

I will try and introduce information about the life of Shakyamuni Buddha
and a glossary of terms, many of them are kigo for Japanese haiku.

Paradise, Heaven 極楽 gokuraku and Hell 地獄  jigoku

ano yo あの世 the other world
haraiso はらいそ paradise (paraiso)
higan 彼岸 the other shore
joodo 浄土 Paradise of Amida
ka no yo かの世 the other world
. meido 冥土 冥途 the other world / yomi 黄泉 "the yellow springs" .
paradaisu パラダイス paradise, Paradies
raise 来世 afterlife, the world to come
rakuen 楽園 paradise, earthly paradise
shigo no sekai 死後の世界 the world after death
takai 他界 to die, to pass into the other world
tengoku 天国 heaven
tenjoo 天上 "up there", heaven

. toogen 桃源 Shangri-La シャングリラ, Arcadia, Eden - Toogenkyoo 桃源郷 fairyland, .
桃源郷 lit. Peach Blossom Valley

. Tokoyo no Kuni 常世国, 常世の国 The Eternal Land (of Shintoism) .
yomi 黄泉 the yellow springs, die Gelben Quellen
yuutopia ユートピア Utopia


And in the limbo toward the other world here are a lot of vengeful spirits, monsters and goblins.

. jigoku 地獄 Buddhist hell - Introduction .
naraku ならく / 奈落 hell, hades

. jigoku no oni 地獄の鬼 demons of the Buddhist hell .


. Pilgrimages in Japan - Introduction .


. - - - Glossary of Terms - - - . - not yet in the ABC index.


Your comments and help are most welcome!

Gabi Greve
GokuRakuAn 極楽庵, Japan



. Gokuraku Joodoo 極楽浄土 Gokuraku Jodo, Paradise in the West of Amida Nyorai .



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- - - - - ABC - Table of Contents - - - - -

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- FFF - / - GGG - / - HHH - / - I I I - / - JJJ -

- KK KK - / - LLL - / - MMM - / - NNN - / - OOO -

- PPP - / - QQQ - / - RRR - / - SSS - / - TTT -

- UUU - / - VVV - / - WWW - / - XXX - / - YYY - / - ZZZ -


. Reference, LINKS - General Information .


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. Join the Onipedia Demons on facebook .


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2017/12/29

General Information

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General Information and Reference


- - - - - - - - - - Latest Additions - - -

. Darumapedia - Temples and Gokuraku .

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A Tourist Guidebook to Paradise  
GokuRaku no Kankoo Annai 極楽の観光案内 by 西村公朝 Nishimura Kocho



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- - - - - - - - - - External LINKS - - -


Buddhism in Japan - Buddha Statues - an extensive guide

A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY
source : Mark Schumacher



Buddhist Art News - Japan
News on Buddhist art, architecture, archaeology, music, dance, and academia.
- source : buddhistartnews.wordpress.com




地獄と極楽がわかる本 - to understand hell and heaven
source : futabasha.co.jp

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A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism
William E. Deal, Brian Ruppert




- quote -
Review by Jonathan Ciliberto
Intended for “upper-level undergraduate and graduate students as well as scholars,” A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism fills a gap by presenting largely recent work of Japanese and Western scholars on Japanese Buddhism. The authors consider prior books on Buddhist cultural history as largely from Indian and Tibetan viewpoints. The particular presumptions, intellectual models, or even prejudices of such positions (e.g., to view Japanese Buddhism as a distant reflection, or a corruption, of a continental original) are seen as obstacles to an accurate history of Buddhism’s influence and interaction with Japan.

The great value of the book is to direct readers to approaches and theories perhaps overlooked by more general histories of Buddhism. Each chapter includes its own bibliography and notes, making the book useful for study of narrow sections of Japan’s history.

Published in 2015, many summaries of and citations to recent scholarship are incorporated. Although a relatively short volume (~200 pages, absent notes and biolographies), it includes a great deal of purely historical information surrounded by “cultural history,” covering Japan from protohistory to the present. The book includes a character glossary.

Some themes that run through the book are: that Buddhism in Japan was not a monolithic “ism,” and that individual sects were not exclusive of one another but rather interacted in practice and doctrine; the complex interaction of indigenous religion with Buddhism; Buddhist lineages in Japan as the agents of cultural influence (e.g., “lineages had already begun to pursue the possibility of an ultimate deity”).

Many chapters include subsections on women and gender in Japanese Buddhism, including a fascinating section on the link between literary salons “established in women’s circles” and often held within monasteries and creating an environment for “the evolving and intimate connection between monastic Buddhists and their lay supporters” (102-4). More generally, these sections illustrate the important influence of women on Japanese Buddhism throughout its history. The book also devotes substantial attention to religion in Japan in the modern period, a much-needed resource.

One instance of a simplification of Japanese history that the authors seek to correct is the view that Shinto and Buddhism remained largely separate strands. While the doctrine of honji-suijaku is relatively well-known, the book reveals in greater depth the complex interplay between the two religions by reference to the writings of recent (and less-recent) scholars.

Another attempt to reveal subtlety beyond a stock scholarly view concerns (in the Heian period) the “limitations of the ‘rhetoric of decadence’ [that] some scholars attribute to ‘old’ Buddhism”. The authors offer Minamoto no Tamenori’s (d. 1101) Sanbo’e as an attempt “to incorporate other parts of the populace” beyond the aristocracy. This undercuts the claim that “practitioners of the ‘old’ Buddhism were completely unconcerned with those outside their walls” as a cause of the emergence of “religious heroes” (like Kukai and Nichiren) (88-90). (That said, the ongoing theme of Japanese Buddhists, unsatisfied with the quality of teaching in Japan, who sought original texts and more authoritative teachers in China, does support the basis of a kind of “decadent” Buddhism.)

It is important to have a sense of what “cultural history” is, or what it intends to do, before considering the authors’ approach to a history Japanese Buddhism. Given that cultural history includes an extremely wide set of approaches, determining the present authors’ use of it as a method is largely about picking out strands from the mass of possibilities. (One author refers to “the notorious difficulty of organizing the disorderly profusion of intradisciplinary, cross-disciplinary, and varying national-intellectual meanings and understandings of the “culture concept” into anything resembling consensual form” [Geoffrey Eley, “What Is Cultural History?”, New German Critique, No. 65, Cultural History/Cultural Studies, Spring – Summer, 1995, pp. 19-36].)

While the authors don’t set out their approach, generally in the present volume they tend to consider Buddhism in Japan less in terms of its religious or spiritual character or content and more as a generator of social and political forms. Or, rather, it is unspoken that religion was the driving force in developing myriad cultural effects in Japan, but the book doesn’t linger on religion itself, as it does on these effects.

It is unclear whether this approach is based on the position described by the scholar of medieval Japanese Buddhism Bernard Faure when he refers to an “absolute standpoint” as a “contradiction in terms” (Faure, Visions of Power (2000), 9). (Faure is frequently cited in A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism.) That is: there are no “religious” standpoints motivating individuals, in terms of absolute or ideal concepts, or at least that taking direction from such standpoints is delusional.

Faure’s view (following from Le Goff) is that “literary and artistic works of art (and, in the case of religion, ritual practice) do no represent any eternal, unitary reality, but rather are the products of the imagination of those who produce them” (Faure, 10, emphasis added). A similar view of religion advocates a “History of Religions approach – trying to figure out how and why certain forms of religiosity took shape the way they did instead of assuming that it was religious experience that made religion” (Alan Cole, Fathering Your Father (2009), xi).

Thus, Faure and historians who follow his approach write religious history absent of religion as an internal activity, aimed at self-improvement, transcendental, or altruistic. Or perhaps this approach simply considers individual “religious” experiences too personal, too psychologically opaque, to form the basis of historical inquiry, and thus discards consideration of such experiences as “religious” in nature, and instead consider them in mainly terms of materiality and politics.

The authors of A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism follow more directly the historian Kuroda Toshio’s sociopolitical functionalist approach. While occasionally offering descriptions of Buddhist practice and doctrine, the book largely focuses on: state-control over and connection with Buddhism in Japan (“Buddhism was firmly controlled by the state” during the early period (66)); art as narrative or purely visual, rather than a function of practice (99); Buddhist practice as a means of gaining influence or power at court, and the claim that “undoubtably” the introduction of esoteric lineages was related to the royal court’s interest in such power(106); that the court drove ritual (“Pivotal organizational and philosophical changes begin to arise in the royal court with the consolidation of the annual court ceremonies” (88, 106)).

Throughout, the authors take pains to connect influential Buddhists with the court: “The Daigoji halls, like those in other major monasteries, primarily housed scions of Fujiwara and Minamoto heritage” (107); “The Shingon lineages, from a very early point, […] had a special connection with the royal line” (108); “the intimate association between Tendai’s Enryakuji (Hiei) and the leading Fujiwaras” (108). Every monk who was a member of a royal family is identified in such a manner.

The author’s de-emphasis on “religious” explanations for religious history in Japan is intended to counterbalance writers who rely too much on such explanations. Citing the notable effect of D.T. Suzuki’s presentation of Zen Buddhism to the West (absurdist, gnomic, iconoclastic), and pointing out that “few Japanese Zen adherents, except those in the modern period and particularly those with access to the writings of Suzuki translated into Japanese” would recognize it, the author’s more social-science approach finds some justification. (146-7).

Performance theory is connected with the authors’ approach. A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism doesn’t lay any groundwork for the reader as to what the doctrine or technique of applying performance theory are. It is a notoriously amorphous field of inquiry. One description of the approach states that “the performative nature of societies around the world, how events and rituals as well as daily life [are] all governed by a code of performance,” and one sees how this aligns with Deal and Ruppert’s approach in the present volume: religious acts are not generated by authenticity, but rather are ritualized and “for show.” Performance theory is difficult to understand as contributing much to an analysis of history, since all human action is outward, and thus all actions are, in a literal sense, “performed.” The negative application of the theory is applied in the present volume: performance theory supports the strategy of avoiding examination the motivations, hearts, or minds of individual in Japanese Buddhist history.

This is a strategy for writing history, and indicates the above-mentioned scholarly caution, perhaps, but also it tends to paint individuals as acting according to a plan (or with hindsight), rather than by caprice, calling, sincerity, compassion, or irrationality. Perhaps it doesn’t matter, in terms of cultural history, whether or not an effect was caused by religion or some other motivation, but only that the effect did occur.

With regard to Buddhist art, the authors acknowledge – particularly as to poetry – that the “undoubted” motivation for including Buddhist themes was a recognition of the contrast between non-attachment and the “intoxication of those who made use of or found beauty in the linguistic arts” (102). Oddly – although in keeping with the author’s “non-religious” approach to religious art – the idea that such an aesthetic intoxication is meant exactly to advance individuals’ practice (e.g., through visualization) is never mentioned, with respect to poetry or any other art form.
- source : Buddhist Art News -

- reference -

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BUDDHISM & SHINTŌISM IN JAPAN
A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE & ART

- source : Mark Schumacher



Digital Dictionary of Buddhism - 電子佛教辭典 / Edited by A. Charles Muller
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- source : www.buddhism-dict.ne

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2017/10/08

rokubu pilgrims 05 Oita

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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
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rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims 05 - Oita to Yamanashi

. rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims .
- Introduction -

六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra
sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei


A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples
in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.




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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


................................................................................. Oita 大分県 
東国東郡 国東町

六部が村の墓地に野宿をしたところ,夜中に亡者達の話し声が聞こえた。

................................................................................. Okayama 岡山県 
上房郡 Jobo district 北房町 Hokubo

tsurugi misaki ツルギミサキ
. Misaki ミサキ / 御先 / 御前 / 御崎 The Misaki Deity of Okayama .


................................................................................. Osaka 大阪府 

ある夜、一夜の宿を求めた六部が会った。ところが翌日家を出る姿を見たものはおらず、六部はそのまま消えてしまった。その後、その家は急に金持ちになったが、そのうち一家は死に絶えた。


................................................................................. Shiga 滋賀県 

03 to explore


................................................................................. Shimane 島根県 
邑智郡

狸,鶏,狐,ティティコブシ
ある六部が怪物が出るという荒れた山寺に泊まった。夜に仏前で読経していると、天井が破れるような大きな音とともに西竹林の鶏三足だという大僧が降りてきた。その後、南池の鯉魚だというものと、北山の白狐だというものもティティコブシはいるかとたずねてきたが、六部の脅しで怪物は立ち去った。その後、六部によって怪物は退治された。ティティコブシは椿の花の化物であるという。


................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県 
庵原郡 Ihara district 両河内村 Ryogochimura

ryuu no tama 龍の玉 dragon ball
There was a family in posession of a dragon ball. An itinerant Rokubu had left it there as a thank-you present.
If they rub it, eye disease will be healed.

Once the ball was investigated by 大阪の博物館 the Osaka Museum. They found it was one of the two special dragon balls in Japan, the 女玉 Female Ball.
"If someone finds 男玉 the Male Ball, we will buy it immediately!"

. ryuu, ryū 龍 竜 伝説 Ryu - dragon legends .

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oni odori 鬼踊 the dancing demon
Once upon a time, every year at the annual festival a girl had to be offered in a white chest as ikinie 生贄 a human sacrifice.
Once an itinerant Rokukbu thought this was the doing of a Yokai monster. So he put a dog into the chest instread of a girl.
And indeed, 古狸 an old Tanuki badger came to get the offering, was bitten by the dog and died.

04 to explore


................................................................................. Tochigi 栃木県 

02 to explore


................................................................................. Tokushima 徳島県 

. munrokubu no tatari 六十六部の祟り curse of Munrokubu .
and the golden rooster

05 to explore



................................................................................. Tokyo 東京都 
西多摩郡

tatariyama 崇り山
ミタマ山はその形から「位牌山」とも呼ばれ、非常に縁起が悪い場所とされ、誰もが所有を嫌がる。山中に「自害沢」という沢がある。ヤマトダケノミコトの従者(平家の落人、六部とも)が自害したところと言われ、ここで仕事をしたものは、その祟りで必ず死ぬ。


................................................................................. Toyama 富山県 

観音様 Kannon Bosatsu
六部が夜中、馬の鈴の音で目が覚めると、観音堂の仏像が帰って来て、今晩子供が生まれたが十四の春に刃物で死ぬことになると言っているのを聞いた。十四年後に訪ねると、その子供は刃物が死因で死んでいた。


................................................................................. Yamagata 山形県 

03 to explore


................................................................................. Yamanashi 山梨県 

六部殺し

05 to explore


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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Rokubu Pilgrims - Introduction -

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


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2017/10/07

rokubu pilgrims 04 Miyazaki

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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
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rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims 04 - Miyazaki to Nara

. rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims .
- Introduction -

六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra
sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei


A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples
in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.




:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .



................................................................................. Miyazaki 宮崎県 

03 to explore



................................................................................. Nagano 長野県 
松本市 Matsumoto

. Kotaroo Yashiki 小太郎屋敷 The Home of the Kotaro Family .
and 怪猫小太ばば The Monster Cat Kotababa

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kane no oto 鐘の音 sound of the bell
Once a Rokubu was killed by the villagers by mistake and burried in an estate called チンチン屋敷 Chinchin yashiki.
Every night the sound of a bell, like CHINCHIN , was heard in the village. So the villagers kept holding rituals for the Rokubu.

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Nagano 下條村 Shimojo

tatari 祟り the curse
In 中原の洞 the cave of Nakahara an itinerant Rokubu had fallen ill and died. People from nearby made a grave for him. Son after that there was a fire in the neighbourhood. They had a Shaman find out about the origin and he told them, the grave of the Rokubu had been too simple, so he put a curse on them.
They re-built the grave and cared for it more carefully from now on.

12 to explore


................................................................................. Nara 奈良県 


source : blog.livedoor.jp/narasizenjyuku/archives...

六十六部供養碑 Rokujurokubu Kuyo Hi Memorial


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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -


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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction -

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


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2017/10/06

rokubu pilgrims 03 Ibaraki

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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
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rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims 03 - Ibaraki to Kyoto

. rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims .
- Introduction -

六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra
sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei


A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples
in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.




:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


................................................................................. Ibaraki 茨城県 

04 to explore



................................................................................. Iwate 岩手県 
奥州市 Oshu town

In the house of a family where a Rokubu had stayed over night, there was a son who had no eyes, nose or mouth. When they poured some powder from a grinder over his head, the hair begun to move and take in the powder.
In another house there was a son who from the waist down looked like a horse.

06 to explore



................................................................................. Kagoshima 鹿児島県 

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曽於郡 Soo district

. rokubu no motte ita awa 六部の持っていた粟 Rokubu pilgrim carrying foxtail millet .

04 to explore



................................................................................. Kochi 高知県 
幡多郡 大方町

白いもん,六部
山を下りていくと、白いものに出会った。浜に出ると、再び2つの白い物が待っていたが、また逃げてきた。別の浜でもまた会って、一晩に三度も同じものを見たことになる。




................................................................................. Kumamoto 熊本県 

kaikoku no hijiri 廻国の聖 Rokubu Pilgrim
人吉の青井社脇の聖権現は廻国の聖が密通して室女を盗んだので遂に共に害せられ、その魂が祟りをなすので祀ったといわれた。

.......................................................................
赤穂 伊倉町 (also told in 長野県)

hihi 狒々 baboon
山犬から生まれた早太郎がいた。あるとき娘が人身御供となり、六部が身代わりに籠の中に入っていると、早太郎には知らせるなと怪物が出てきた。早太郎を呼んで身代わりになってもらうと、中で怪物を噛み殺した。その正体は狒々であった。




................................................................................. Kyoto 京都府 
竹野郡 Takeno district

daija 大蛇 huge serpent
Around 1775, a farmer from Takeno had killed a huge serpent which had devastated his buckwheat field. Since than, many small snakes had appeared in his home. To appease the soul of the serpent, the farmer decided to become a Rokubu pilgrim and also built a stone memorial. But until further generations of his family, bad luck continued. The water of the river which was filled with the liquid from the dead serpent, was unsuitable not only for humans, but also for horses and cows.



03 to explore



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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction -

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #rokujuroku #rokubupirgrims # -
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

2017/10/05

rokubu pilgrims 02 Aichi

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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
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rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims 02 - Aichi to Hyogo

. rokubu 六部 Rokubu pilgrims .
- Introduction -

六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra
sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei


A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples
in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.




:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


................................................................................. Aichi 愛知県 

03 to explore


................................................................................. Aomori 青森県 
八戸市 Hachinohe

niwatorizuka 鶏塚 rooster mound
商家の妻が病気で臥せっているところ、訪れた六十六部が床下より北方3間ばかりのところに鶏が埋めてある、と告げた。翌日さっそく言われたところを掘ってみると、生きているかのような白雄鶏が発見された。鶏をつかった呪いであるという。
.
明治以前、ある沼の近くに六部と娘が住んでいた。ある時、娘が白い鶏を抱いて沼に入り死んだ。それからそこを「鳥沼」と呼ぶようになった。今でも沼の底から鶏の鳴き声が聞こえると言う。



................................................................................. Chiba 千葉県 
安房郡 Awa district 鋸南町 Kyonan

oni 鬼 demon
On 人骨山 mount Hitoboneyama (human bones) 218 m, there lived a demon, who needed a human sacrifice every year.
Once an itinerant Rokubu came and tried to help them. A strong dog came running from the west and finally drove away the demon.

- 人骨山の鬼伝説 Hitoboneyama (Hitohoneyama) no Oni Densetsu
- reference source : toki.moo.jp/gaten... 145 -

.......................................................................

memorial for Rokubu son 六部尊 in 流山 Nagareyama town



流山市加1丁目
This memorial was erected in 1767 when a Rokubu pilgrim died in the village. They erected a stone memorial and a small hall around it, 六部尊堂, promising to worship there regularly.
But over the years all was forgotten and nobody cared for it any more.


But in 1958 a new hall was built and the neighbors begun to worship again. The hall was renewed in 2014.
- source : wikipedia -



................................................................................. Ehime 愛媛県 

02 to explore


................................................................................. Fukushima 福島県 

02 to explore


................................................................................. Gifu 岐阜県 

Rokubuzuka 六部塚

03 to explore


................................................................................. Gunma 群馬県 

03 to explore


................................................................................. Hiroshima 広島県 
福山市 走島町

hebi 蛇
昔、蛇が男の姿になって娘の元に通い、娘は孕んだ。そこに六部がやってきて娘が蛇の子を孕んでいるので三月の節句の桃酒と五月の節句の菖蒲酒を飲むと良いというのでその通りにするとタライに七タライもある長い蛇の子を産み落とした。


................................................................................. Hyogo 兵庫県 

04 to explore



..............................................................................................................................................

- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction -

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #rokujuroku #rokubupirgrims # -
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

rokubu pilgrims Jizo

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. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
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rokubu Jizoo 六部地蔵 Rokubu Jizo Bosatsu

. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction -

sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage
六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei


A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples
in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.




. Jizō - Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - Introduction .

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


................................................................................. Hyogo 兵庫県 
氷上郡 Hikami district

saru 猿 monkey
The daughter of the village elder was choosen as the annual human sacrifice for the hihi 狒々 monster baboon, but a Rokubu saved her.
When he continued his travels, the Rokubu fell to the ground due to the poison of the Baboon. He was in turn saved by an old grandfather and grandmother, who told him to take shelter near the Jizo Bosatsu.
When the son of these elders came home, he killed his parents and said it was the Rokubu who had killed them.
Now the daughter who the Rokubu had saved in the first place realized whan has happened and and saved the Rokubu from the punishment of beheading.
Thus is the circle of events.

. hihi 狒々/ 狒狒 / 比々 Hihi Baboon Monster Legends .



................................................................................. Iwate 岩手県 

Just when a Rokubu pilgrim walked over the pass, the woman of the lodging gave birth to a baby. The husband, who had been away to get help, was surprized to find nobody at home when he came back, neither mother nor the baby.
To pray for their peace in the other world, he built a stone statue of Jizo Bosatsu. When the statue by accident rolled down the hill and into the swamp, he had a dream that night and Jizo told him where his wife and the baby were.



................................................................................. Kagoshima 鹿児島県 
曽於郡 Soo district

Rokubu Jizo no bachi 六部地蔵のバチ divine punishment
Once an old villager became very ill, but the cause was not known. When he asked a shaman he told him:
"Bring an offering of salt and clear water to the Rokubu Jizo every day!"
He did so for four, five days and - oh wonder - the man was healed.
People thought since the man had lost his wife in a traffic accident and collected a lot of insurance money to gamble around, this has been his divine punishment.

.......................................................................

Rokubu no junrei no tatari 六部の巡礼のたたり curse of the Rokubu pilgrim
The 渡辺初男家 Watanabe family has a Jizo dating back to around 1855.
They got it to appease a Rokubu pilgrim who had cursed the family.



................................................................................. Kumamoto 熊本県 
上天草市松島町阿村 Kami-Asakusa, Matsuchima, Amura



This Jizo helps taking away warts and is also called
ibotori Jizoo イボとり地蔵 Jizo taking away warts
People use the water offerings to spread them over their skin for healing.
If they get healed, they bring some Tofu as an offering.
reference source : jalan.net/kankou/spt...


. ibotori 疣取り / イボ取り / いぼとり take away warts .



................................................................................. Niigata 新潟県 
加茂市 Kamo

Once upon a time
a Rokubu pilgrim came along and collected a few thousand stones, taking three, four years. Then he made a statue of Jizo Bosatsu of about 4 meters high, and used the small stones to make made a lot of small Jizo statues and left the village. Since the village children came to play with them, eventually the villagers built a lattice fence around it.
Once on a winter day, looking closely, the Jizo was not there any more, and the footsteps of a small child were all over the place. Following the footsteps, they found the Jizo near a clear spring. The villagers were overjoyed with the new water source and called the spring
Jizo Kiyomizu 地蔵清水.
In his honor they built the temple 谷泉寺 Kokusen-Ji near the spring.
新潟県加茂市下土倉778 / 778 Shimotsuchikura, Kamo-shi



................................................................................. Yamagata 山形県 
中津川村 Nakatsugawa village

Once a Rokubu Pilgrim stayed over night. Since he carried some money, the villagers killed him with a hemp cord.
Before he died the pilgrim said "I will extinguish this family and turn it into Roku Jizo."
The family flourished for a short while but then the line was extinguished.

..............................................................................................................................................


- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction - Rokubu Pilgrims -

. Jizō - Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 - Introduction .


. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #rokujuroku #rokubujizo #jizorokubu -
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2017/10/04

rokubu pilgrims Miyagi

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction -

sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage
六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei


A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples
in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.




:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


................................................................................. Miyagi 宮城県 
.......................................................................
Miyagi 気仙沼市 Kesennuma

yookai 妖怪
儀八郎の老母おさんがある時から急に敏捷になり生臭物を好むようになった。猫踊りのような踊りを見せることもあった。その頃鶏などが攫われる事件があったので,近所には恐ろしい噂が広がっていた。その頃のある日の夕方,六部が一人浜街道をやってくると杉並木の辺りで突然頭上から怪物が襲い掛かってきた。斬りつけると手応えがあったが,怪物は逃げ去ってしまった。その夜六部が儀八郎の家に宿を乞うと,急病人が出たということで一旦断わられたが納戸の一間を借りることができた。夜更けに隣室の物音で六部が目を醒まし,そっと窺うと子猫たちが遊び戯れており,犬程もある虎猫が後肢で立って行灯の油皿を舐めている。翌朝六部は主人に昨夜来の事情を話し,その夜二人で老女の部屋に飛び込んだ。ようやく怪物を仕留めてみると老母の姿であったが,朝日に照らしてみると骸はやはり古猫であることが判明した。この怪猫は松崎の猫渕に棲んだ古猫で,その死骸を埋めたのが猫石だと言われている。儀八郎はその後六部に金塊を贈り,六部はこれを観音像にした。その後観音像と由来書は儀八郎の子孫の家に届けられ,今も保存されている。

.......................................................................
Miyagi 柴田郡 Shibata district 村田町 Murata

rokubu no onryoo 六部の怨霊 - yookai 妖怪
正保年間(1644~1648)の頃,同町の宿屋に一人の六部が泊まったが宿の主は六部の所持金に目がくらんで殺してしまった。数年後に弟分だという六部が来てその六部が泊まらなかったか尋ねたところ,主人は知らないと答えたが,灰の中から偶然見覚えのある笠の金具が出てきたので弟分の六部は全てを悟り,殺された友のために読経した。すると六部が幽霊となって現れ,この恨みに必ず報いる旨を告げ,弟分も呪法を結んで立ち去った。以後その宿屋には不幸が続いて子孫が絶え,その場所に住んだ者も皆不幸に見舞われたので幽霊屋敷,化物屋敷と呼ばれるようになった。


source : town-murata.com/2010/08... 六部伝説

.......................................................................
Miyagi 多賀城市 Tagajo

善海上人の不動尊像 Fudo Statue - yookai 妖怪 - rokubu no tatari 六部の祟り
「上人塚」と呼ばれる古碑が立っており,正面右に天和癸亥年善海上人と書かれている。当時(約350年前)この地方で勢力を振るっている豪族がおり,ある日部下が一人の六部(山伏)を捕らえてきた。主人は他国の間諜に間違いないとして十分に糾問せずこれを斬り捨て,死骸は屋敷の一隅に埋めさせた。ところがその後豪族の家には黒い雲が覆い,災害や不幸が相次いで一族は死に絶えてしまった。それから何代か土地の所有者が変ったがいずれも不慮の死を遂げた。現在残っている善海上人の不動尊像は誰の時代の建立か不明であるが,今でもここを「上人塚」,前の田を「上人田」と呼んで,年寄などは近付かないようにしている。

.......................................................................
Miyagi 遠田郡 Toda district 涌谷町 Wakuya

yookai 妖怪
所有者が必ず死ぬと言う奇怪な土地がある。これは,昔旅に行き暮れた六部を泊め,その所持金に目がくらんでこれを殺害して屋敷の一隅に埋めてしまったためで,六部の怨霊がいつまでもその地の所有者に祟って夭折させたり作物を不毛にしたりしたのだと言う。その後六部の墓を建てて弔ったが,今日でもはっきりした所有者はなく荒れるに負かされている。



..............................................................................................................................................

- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -
08 六部 宮城 (04)

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim .
- Introduction -

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #rokujuroku #rokubumiyagi #miyagirokubu -
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

2017/10/02

rokujurokubu rokubu pilgrimage

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

rokujuurokubu 六十六部 Rokujurokubu, Rokujuroku Bu pilgrim
sixty-six part circuit pilgrimage
六部(ろくぶ) Rokubu pilgrimage, Rokubu pilgrim / / 六十六部衆
Pilgrim traveling with 66 volumes of the Lotus Sutra


Rokujurokubu Hijiri - kaikoku hijiri 廻国聖 - itinerant Rokubu Pilgrim
六十六部行者 rokujuurokubu gyooja / 六部行者 / rokubu gyoja
六十六部廻国巡礼 rokujurokubu kaikoku junrei



The Rokujurokubu pilgrimage started a long time ago, already mentioned in the 太平記 Taiheiki history written in the 14th century.
There are various ways to do it.
A pilgrim copies the 法華経 Hokekyo Lotus Sutra 66 times and brings a copy each to 66 temples in 66カ国 66 different domains of Japan.
Others carried 66 copies to just one domain of Japan. There were no special temples to bring the sutas to.
Some wore a special robe and hat, others looked more like 山伏 Yamabushi mountain priests.
The pilgrims were thought to possess special powers and were also called 箱根法師 Hakone Hoshi or 箱根権現の僧 Hakone Gongen no So.
Some were considered as semi-religious itinerant beggars who frequented the highways of Edo Japan.
Many begging pilgrims died somewhere on their long road and were burried by the local people.
Some pilgrims promised to heal certain illnesses after their death, if the villagers built a sanctuary for them and venerated there.



During the Edo period the pilgrim could also carry a wooden backpack with a Buddha statue, walk to 66 temples while hitting a kane 鉦 prayer bell and ask for offerings.
Pilgrimages were quite popular during this time as a means to get out of Edo and get a permission to travel freely round the country.
The Rokubu pilgrims were just as popular as the Henro pilgrims in Shikoku.

Some Rokubu pilgrims just walked the 西国巡礼 Saikoku Kannon Pilgrimage to 33 temples twice or went to the 国分寺 Kokubun-Ji domaine temples or 一宮 Ichinomiya domaine Shrines.

. Hokke-kyoo 法華経 Hokekyo, Lotus Sutra, Saddharma-pundariika-suutra .
- Introduction -

The "Record of the origin of the sixty-six part circuit" (Rokujurokubu engi 六十六部縁起), a Muromachi period document,


日本廻国六十六部と四国遍路
Nihon Kaikoku Rokujurokubu and Shikoku Henro : Two Kinds of Japan's Pilgrimages





- 六十六部納経塔 1816年 / 重輪寺入口の石仏
- reference source : blog.goo.ne.jp/sekizoubutu -


- 六十六部廻国供養塔 / 大阪市天王寺区四天王寺2 Osaka
- reference source : city.osaka.lg.jp/kyoiku/page... -

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rokubu-gasa 六部笠 special straw hat for a Rokubu pilgrim
Made of dried igusa イ草 reeds (the same as used for Tatami mats).
The hat is nine inches deep and two feet wide and is laquered black. sometimes with a center top and lower edge laquered chocolate brown. ... this deep hat conceals the face, so it can be worn for the same purpose as the tengai. The Rokubugasa has been adapted for stage wear by all classes.
- - - Kabuki Costume - By Ruth M. Shaver:
- reference source : google books -

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- - - - - Rokubu and Kabuki - - - - -


source : Boston Museum of Fine Arts

初代市川門之助の六十六部 Actor Ichikawa Monnosuke I as a Rokubu Pilgrim



source : Boston Museum of Fine Arts

二代目市川団十郎の六部 Actor Ichikawa Danjûrô II as a Rokubu Pilgrim

other images include
Actor Nakamura Nakazo as a rokuju-rokubu
Actor Matsumoto Kôshirô as Rokubu Pilgrim

.......................................................................


The misfortunes befalling Rokubu and pilgrims
Including various legends about the Rokubu.
- Pilgrimages and Spiritual Quests in Japan - edited by Peter Ackermann, Dolores Martinez, Maria Rodriguez del Alisal
- reference source : google books -


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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


. rokubu Jizoo 六部地蔵 Rokubu Jizo Bosatsu - Legends .

.......................................................................

. Rokubu Legends from Aichi to Hyogo .

Aichi 愛知県  -- Aomori 青森県 -- Chiba 千葉県 -- Ehime 愛媛県
Fukushima 福島県 -- Gifu 岐阜県 -- Gunma 群馬県 
Hiroshima 広島県 -- Hyogo 兵庫県 

.......................................................................

. Rokubu Legends from Ibaraki to Kyoto .

Ibaraki 茨城県 -- Iwate 岩手県 -- Kagoshima 鹿児島県 
Kochi 高知県 --Kumamoto 熊本県 -- Kyoto 京都府

.......................................................................

. Rokubu Legends from Miyagi 宮城県 .

.......................................................................

. Rokubu Legends from Miyazaki to Nara .

Miyazaki 宮崎県 -- Nagano 長野県 -- Nara 奈良県

.......................................................................

. Rokubu Legends from Oita to Yamanashi .

Oita 大分県 -- Okayama 岡山県 -- Osaka 大阪府
Shiga 滋賀県 -- Shimane 島根県 -- Shizuoka 静岡県
Tochigi 栃木県 -- Tokushima 徳島県 -- Tokyo 東京都 -- Toyama 富山県 
Yamagata 山形県 -- Yamanashi 山梨県 

.............................................................................................................................................

- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -




::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .

. Onipedia 日本の鬼 The Demons of Japan .


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM . TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - #rokujurokubu #rokubu #kaikoku #rokubulegends #legendsrokubu -
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2017/08/16

Korinji Kanazawa

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Koorinji 香林寺 Korin-Ji, Kanazawa, Ishikawa


石川県金沢市野町1-3-15 / 1-3-15 Nomachi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa

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Erected by Aoki Gohei, one of the chief retainers of the Maeda clan in 1650, the Korin-ji Temple is the top spiritual power spot in Japan where devotees go to pray for love and marriage. To pray at Korin-ji, start by walking three times around the “Road of Happiness” inside the temple’s garden. After that, touch your Chinese zodiac sign image, followed by praying at the statue of Fudo deity. It is believed that you will be blessed with fair beautiful skin if you touch the deity!

Besides seeking spiritual power at Korin-ji, you will be able to immerse yourself in the pretty sight of flowers here too. Don’t miss the chance for a best view of the lovely cherry blossoms around late March to early April here. From late April to early May, bright crimson-coloured Kirishima azalea flowers in bloom delight visitors while beautiful white amaryllis flowers fill the temple grounds around late September to early October.
- source : trip101.com/article/kanazawa-japan...





- - - - -幸福御守 Amulet for good luck and happiness

You buy a tasuki 襷 cord to hold up the sleeves of a kimono, for making a wish.
Write your wish on the Tasuki and hang it around the Zodiac animal of your birthday. The 12 stone statues in the temple garden are waiting to accept the wishes and colorful Tasuki.











CLICK for more photos !


. 12 Zociac animals 干支  eto, kanshi - Introduction .
. ne 子 (nezumi 鼠) Rat (mouse)
. ushi 丑 Ox (cow, bull) .
. tora 寅 Tiger .
. u (usagi) 卯 Rabbit .
. tatsu 辰 Dragon .
. mi (hebi) 巳 Snake, Serpent .
. uma 午 Horse .
. mi (hitsuji) 未 Ram (sheep) .
. saru 申 Monkey .
. tori 酉 Rooster (chicken, cock) .
. inu 戌 Dog .
. i (inoshishi) 亥 Boar (wild boar) .


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- HP of the temple

- reference source : http://www.kourinji.jp/ -


- reference : kanazawa korinji temple -

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2017/08/12

Kegon Buddhism

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Kegon-shū 華厳宗 Kegon Sect Buddhism

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Kegon (華厳宗) is the Japanese transmission of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism.
Huayan studies were founded in Japan in 736 when the scholar-priest Rōben (良辯 or 良弁), originally a monk of the East Asian Yogācāra tradition, invited Shinshō (traditional Chinese: 審祥; ; pinyin: Shenxiang; Japanese pronunciation: Shinjō; Korean: Simsang) to give lectures on the Avatamsaka Sutra at Kinshōsen Temple (金鐘山寺, also 金鐘寺 Konshu-ji or Kinshō-ji), the origin of later Tōdai-ji.
When the construction of the Tōdai-ji was completed, Rōben entered that temple to formally initiate Kegon as a field of study in Buddhism in Japan, and Kegon-shū would become known as one of the Nanto Rikushū (南都六宗) or Six Buddhist Sects of Nanto). Rōben's disciple Jitchū continued administration of Tōdai-ji and expanded its prestige through the introduction of imported rituals.
Kegon thought would later be popularized by Myōe (明惠), who combined its doctrines with those of Vajrayana and Gyōnen (凝然), and is most responsible for the establishment of the Tōdai-ji lineage of Kegon. Over time, Kegon incorporated esoteric ritual from Shingon Buddhism, with which it shared a cordial relationship. Its practice continues to this day, and includes a few temples overseas.
- source : wikipedia



. Toodaiji 東大寺 Todai-Ji - Nara .
and Priest 良弁僧正 Roben Sojo (689 - 773)
The temple is famous for its Kegon-E 華厳会 Kegon Rituals.

. Saint Myoe Shonin 明恵上人 (1173 - 1232) .
and temple 高山寺 Kozan-Ji

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- - - - - There are various temples named Kegon-Ji in Japan.

. Kegonji 華厳寺 temple Kegon-Ji .
岐阜県揖斐郡揖斐川町谷汲徳積 Tanigumi Hozumi, Ibigawa, Gifu


. Suzumushidera 鈴虫寺 / 妙徳山 Myotokuzan Kegon-Ji .
京都府京都市西京区松室地家町31 Kyoto

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Kegon Engi-E 華厳縁起絵 Picture Scroll of the Kegon sect

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Here is a painting of a large boat moving across a stormy sea on top the back of a fierce dragon. Can you believe that such a dynamic work was painted in Japan more than 750 years ago? This fantastic sight may seem amazing and mysterious, but perhaps you may be more surprised to learn that this dragon is actually the transformation of a beautiful woman named Shanmiao (J., Zenmyo).


Legends of the Kegon Sect, Scroll Three : (Kozan-ji)

Shanmiao was the daughter of a rich man, who lived in a port town in China during the Tang dynasty (618-907). She fell in love with a handsome Korean monk from Silla, Uisang (J., Gisho), who was studying Buddhism in China. One day, while begging for alms, Uisang happened to visit Shanmiao's house, where she confessed her love to him. Uisang tried to dissuade her: "I am a monk so I cannot accept your feelings for me. Please open your heart and transfer those feelings to support the Buddhist teachings instead."

Eventually, Uisang completed his studies and was about to return to Korea. Shanmiao, learning of this, gathered all the Buddhist utensils that she had been collecting and rushed to the harbor, but it was too late. The ship had already set sail into the distance. Seeing this, the distressed Shanmiao threw her Buddhist utensil box in the direction of the ship and jumped into the sea. She then miraculously transformed into a dragon and protected Uisang on his voyage home.

This painting comes from Legends of the Kegon Sect (also known as Illustrated Biographies of the Kegon Sect Patriarchs), in seven volumes, which tells of the patriarchs of the Buddhist Hwaeom (J., Kegon) sect in Korea, Uisang (625-702) and Weonhyo (J., Gangyo, 617-686), based on their entries in a Chinese collection of biographies on early eminent Buddhist priests. This set of illustrated handscrolls belongs to Kozan-ji, a temple renowned for its beautiful autumn leaves in Toganoo, located in northwest Kyoto, Japan. Kozan-ji was revived, at the beginning of the Kamakura period (1185-1333), as a training center for the Kegon sect in Japan by the influential monk Myoe (1173-1232), who is thought to have initiated the making of these handscrolls.

The long, continuous narrative style of emaki, or illustrated handscroll, effectively draws its viewers into the story. Here, too, this scene-the climax of Uisang's tale-develops rhythmically from Shanmiao grieving over Uisang's departure, casting her Buddhist utensil box into the sea, then plunging herself into the waves and transforming into the dragon. A heightened sense of anticipation gradually develops for the viewer.

This illustrated biography, which highlights the episode of Shanmiao's devotion to Uisang, perhaps reflects Myoe's admiration for Uisang and his wanting to become like the great Korean master with whom he shared similar spiritual views. Uisang's accomplishment of studying in China, which was Myoe's long, unfulfilled wish, and Uisang's gaining a female Buddhist adherent in China, appears to have left a strong impression on Myoe, who worshipped Shanmiao like a deity and held firm to be loyal like her. Uisang's biography explains the meaning of Shanmiao's miracle and is thought to been produced in order to reveal Myoe's feelings.

By the way, who do you think was Myoe's model for Shanmiao? In the first year of the Jokyu era (1221), after the shogun Minamoto no Sanetomo was assassinated and the Kamakura government experienced turmoil, the Retired Emperor Gotoba raised an army to overthrow the government. However, the government forces quickly brought down this revolt. This political struggle, known in Japanese history as the Jokyu Rebellion, led to the deaths of many courtiers in Kyoto, and during this time, many court women asked Myoe for help. Shanmiao may have represented these women to Myoe, and so he had them become nuns and built a temple named Zenmyo-ji (Shanmiao Temple), in which they could live. He may have also taught these women about Shanmiao's tale and converted them to the Kegon faith. We can imagine that these women, who lost their husbands in war, seeing this story, may have sympathized with Shanmiao and, through Myoe, devoted themselves to Buddhism.
- source : Kyoto National Museum - Junji Wakasugi, 1997-



華厳宗祖師絵伝 (華厳縁起)
小松茂美 Komatsu Shigemi (1925 - 2010)
Illustrated Legends of the Kegon Patriarchs

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- A scene from the scroll:

Two traveling monks were sleeping in a cave, not realizing this was in fact a grave.
The first night nothing happened, but on the second night, an Oni demon appeared in their dreams and attacked them.
(Dead human beings can turn into an Oni if they have left problems in this world that need to be solved.)


洞窟の中で鬼に襲われる夢を見る


. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - Index - .

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

During the Kegon-E 華厳会 Kegon ritual of painting eyes for the statue of the Great Buddha at the temple 東大寺 Todai-Ji an old man passing by, who had carried a bamboo basket with saba 鯖 mackerels was summoned to read the Kegon Sutra....
... The mackerels turned into 80 volumes of the 華厳経 Kegon Sutra....

- - - - - Read the full story here :
. saba no ki 鯖の木 the mackerel tree .


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