2017/12/31

Welcome to Paradise !

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Welcome to Gokuraku 極楽 the Buddhist Paradise !

I will try and introduce information about the life of Shakyamuni Buddha
and a glossary of terms, many of them are kigo for Japanese haiku.

Paradise, Heaven 極楽 gokuraku and Hell 地獄  jigoku

ano yo あの世 the other world
haraiso はらいそ paradise (paraiso)
higan 彼岸 the other shore
joodo 浄土 Paradise of Amida
ka no yo かの世 the other world
. meido 冥土 冥途 the other world / yomi 黄泉 "the yellow springs" .
paradaisu パラダイス paradise, Paradies
raise 来世 afterlife, the world to come
rakuen 楽園 paradise, earthly paradise
shigo no sekai 死後の世界 the world after death
takai 他界 to die, to pass into the other world
tengoku 天国 heaven
tenjoo 天上 "up there", heaven

. toogen 桃源 Shangri-La シャングリラ, Arcadia, Eden - Toogenkyoo 桃源郷 fairyland, .
桃源郷 lit. Peach Blossom Valley

. Tokoyo no Kuni 常世国, 常世の国 The Eternal Land (of Shintoism) .
yomi 黄泉 the yellow springs, die Gelben Quellen
yuutopia ユートピア Utopia


And in the limbo toward the other world here are a lot of vengeful spirits, monsters and goblins.


jigoku 地獄 Buddhist hell - Introduction
. naraku ならく / 奈落 hell, hades .


. Pilgrimages in Japan - Introduction .


. - - - Glossary of Terms - - - . - not yet in the ABC index.



Your comments and help are most welcome!

Gabi Greve
GokuRakuAn 極楽庵, Japan


. Gokuraku Joodoo 極楽浄土 Gokuraku Jodo, Paradise in the West of Amida Nyorai .






. Reference, LINKS - General Information .


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2017/12/29

General Information

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General Information and Reference


- - - - - - - - - - Latest Additions - - -

. Darumapedia - Temples and Gokuraku .

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A Tourist Guidebook to Paradise  
GokuRaku no Kankoo Annai 極楽の観光案内 by 西村公朝 Nishimura Kocho



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- - - - - - - - - - External LINKS - - -


Buddhism in Japan - Buddha Statues - an extensive guide

A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY
source : Mark Schumacher



Buddhist Art News - Japan
News on Buddhist art, architecture, archaeology, music, dance, and academia.
- source : buddhistartnews.wordpress.com




地獄と極楽がわかる本 - to understand hell and heaven
source : futabasha.co.jp

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A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism
William E. Deal, Brian Ruppert




- quote -
Review by Jonathan Ciliberto
Intended for “upper-level undergraduate and graduate students as well as scholars,” A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism fills a gap by presenting largely recent work of Japanese and Western scholars on Japanese Buddhism. The authors consider prior books on Buddhist cultural history as largely from Indian and Tibetan viewpoints. The particular presumptions, intellectual models, or even prejudices of such positions (e.g., to view Japanese Buddhism as a distant reflection, or a corruption, of a continental original) are seen as obstacles to an accurate history of Buddhism’s influence and interaction with Japan.

The great value of the book is to direct readers to approaches and theories perhaps overlooked by more general histories of Buddhism. Each chapter includes its own bibliography and notes, making the book useful for study of narrow sections of Japan’s history.

Published in 2015, many summaries of and citations to recent scholarship are incorporated. Although a relatively short volume (~200 pages, absent notes and biolographies), it includes a great deal of purely historical information surrounded by “cultural history,” covering Japan from protohistory to the present. The book includes a character glossary.

Some themes that run through the book are: that Buddhism in Japan was not a monolithic “ism,” and that individual sects were not exclusive of one another but rather interacted in practice and doctrine; the complex interaction of indigenous religion with Buddhism; Buddhist lineages in Japan as the agents of cultural influence (e.g., “lineages had already begun to pursue the possibility of an ultimate deity”).

Many chapters include subsections on women and gender in Japanese Buddhism, including a fascinating section on the link between literary salons “established in women’s circles” and often held within monasteries and creating an environment for “the evolving and intimate connection between monastic Buddhists and their lay supporters” (102-4). More generally, these sections illustrate the important influence of women on Japanese Buddhism throughout its history. The book also devotes substantial attention to religion in Japan in the modern period, a much-needed resource.

One instance of a simplification of Japanese history that the authors seek to correct is the view that Shinto and Buddhism remained largely separate strands. While the doctrine of honji-suijaku is relatively well-known, the book reveals in greater depth the complex interplay between the two religions by reference to the writings of recent (and less-recent) scholars.

Another attempt to reveal subtlety beyond a stock scholarly view concerns (in the Heian period) the “limitations of the ‘rhetoric of decadence’ [that] some scholars attribute to ‘old’ Buddhism”. The authors offer Minamoto no Tamenori’s (d. 1101) Sanbo’e as an attempt “to incorporate other parts of the populace” beyond the aristocracy. This undercuts the claim that “practitioners of the ‘old’ Buddhism were completely unconcerned with those outside their walls” as a cause of the emergence of “religious heroes” (like Kukai and Nichiren) (88-90). (That said, the ongoing theme of Japanese Buddhists, unsatisfied with the quality of teaching in Japan, who sought original texts and more authoritative teachers in China, does support the basis of a kind of “decadent” Buddhism.)

It is important to have a sense of what “cultural history” is, or what it intends to do, before considering the authors’ approach to a history Japanese Buddhism. Given that cultural history includes an extremely wide set of approaches, determining the present authors’ use of it as a method is largely about picking out strands from the mass of possibilities. (One author refers to “the notorious difficulty of organizing the disorderly profusion of intradisciplinary, cross-disciplinary, and varying national-intellectual meanings and understandings of the “culture concept” into anything resembling consensual form” [Geoffrey Eley, “What Is Cultural History?”, New German Critique, No. 65, Cultural History/Cultural Studies, Spring – Summer, 1995, pp. 19-36].)

While the authors don’t set out their approach, generally in the present volume they tend to consider Buddhism in Japan less in terms of its religious or spiritual character or content and more as a generator of social and political forms. Or, rather, it is unspoken that religion was the driving force in developing myriad cultural effects in Japan, but the book doesn’t linger on religion itself, as it does on these effects.

It is unclear whether this approach is based on the position described by the scholar of medieval Japanese Buddhism Bernard Faure when he refers to an “absolute standpoint” as a “contradiction in terms” (Faure, Visions of Power (2000), 9). (Faure is frequently cited in A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism.) That is: there are no “religious” standpoints motivating individuals, in terms of absolute or ideal concepts, or at least that taking direction from such standpoints is delusional.

Faure’s view (following from Le Goff) is that “literary and artistic works of art (and, in the case of religion, ritual practice) do no represent any eternal, unitary reality, but rather are the products of the imagination of those who produce them” (Faure, 10, emphasis added). A similar view of religion advocates a “History of Religions approach – trying to figure out how and why certain forms of religiosity took shape the way they did instead of assuming that it was religious experience that made religion” (Alan Cole, Fathering Your Father (2009), xi).

Thus, Faure and historians who follow his approach write religious history absent of religion as an internal activity, aimed at self-improvement, transcendental, or altruistic. Or perhaps this approach simply considers individual “religious” experiences too personal, too psychologically opaque, to form the basis of historical inquiry, and thus discards consideration of such experiences as “religious” in nature, and instead consider them in mainly terms of materiality and politics.

The authors of A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism follow more directly the historian Kuroda Toshio’s sociopolitical functionalist approach. While occasionally offering descriptions of Buddhist practice and doctrine, the book largely focuses on: state-control over and connection with Buddhism in Japan (“Buddhism was firmly controlled by the state” during the early period (66)); art as narrative or purely visual, rather than a function of practice (99); Buddhist practice as a means of gaining influence or power at court, and the claim that “undoubtably” the introduction of esoteric lineages was related to the royal court’s interest in such power(106); that the court drove ritual (“Pivotal organizational and philosophical changes begin to arise in the royal court with the consolidation of the annual court ceremonies” (88, 106)).

Throughout, the authors take pains to connect influential Buddhists with the court: “The Daigoji halls, like those in other major monasteries, primarily housed scions of Fujiwara and Minamoto heritage” (107); “The Shingon lineages, from a very early point, […] had a special connection with the royal line” (108); “the intimate association between Tendai’s Enryakuji (Hiei) and the leading Fujiwaras” (108). Every monk who was a member of a royal family is identified in such a manner.

The author’s de-emphasis on “religious” explanations for religious history in Japan is intended to counterbalance writers who rely too much on such explanations. Citing the notable effect of D.T. Suzuki’s presentation of Zen Buddhism to the West (absurdist, gnomic, iconoclastic), and pointing out that “few Japanese Zen adherents, except those in the modern period and particularly those with access to the writings of Suzuki translated into Japanese” would recognize it, the author’s more social-science approach finds some justification. (146-7).

Performance theory is connected with the authors’ approach. A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism doesn’t lay any groundwork for the reader as to what the doctrine or technique of applying performance theory are. It is a notoriously amorphous field of inquiry. One description of the approach states that “the performative nature of societies around the world, how events and rituals as well as daily life [are] all governed by a code of performance,” and one sees how this aligns with Deal and Ruppert’s approach in the present volume: religious acts are not generated by authenticity, but rather are ritualized and “for show.” Performance theory is difficult to understand as contributing much to an analysis of history, since all human action is outward, and thus all actions are, in a literal sense, “performed.” The negative application of the theory is applied in the present volume: performance theory supports the strategy of avoiding examination the motivations, hearts, or minds of individual in Japanese Buddhist history.

This is a strategy for writing history, and indicates the above-mentioned scholarly caution, perhaps, but also it tends to paint individuals as acting according to a plan (or with hindsight), rather than by caprice, calling, sincerity, compassion, or irrationality. Perhaps it doesn’t matter, in terms of cultural history, whether or not an effect was caused by religion or some other motivation, but only that the effect did occur.

With regard to Buddhist art, the authors acknowledge – particularly as to poetry – that the “undoubted” motivation for including Buddhist themes was a recognition of the contrast between non-attachment and the “intoxication of those who made use of or found beauty in the linguistic arts” (102). Oddly – although in keeping with the author’s “non-religious” approach to religious art – the idea that such an aesthetic intoxication is meant exactly to advance individuals’ practice (e.g., through visualization) is never mentioned, with respect to poetry or any other art form.
- source : Buddhist Art News -

- reference -

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CLICK for more books !


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BUDDHISM & SHINTŌISM IN JAPAN
A-TO-Z PHOTO DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE & ART

- source : Mark Schumacher



Digital Dictionary of Buddhism - 電子佛教辭典 / Edited by A. Charles Muller
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- source : www.buddhism-dict.ne

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2016/09/26

Zegaibo Tengu

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. Tengupedia - 天狗ペディア - Tengu ABC-Index .
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Zegaiboo, Zegai-bô 是害坊 Zegai-Bo, Zegaibo Tengu
Zenkaiboo 善界坊 Zenkaibo, Zenkai-Bo

Around 966, came all the way from China to challenge the power of the Tengu of Japan.
First he went to 愛宕山 Atagoyama to see Nichiraboo 日羅坊 Nichira-Bo, Nichirabo (Taroboo 太郎坊 Taro-Bo).
Nichira-Bo told him this would not work, so Zengai-Bo went further to Mount Hieizan (Hiei-zan). There lived
比叡山 法性坊 - Hosei-Bo and others.
They were much more powerful then Zegai-Bo, and he was beaten very strongly by a young novice. He even burned his wings. He was hurt badly but the kind Tengu eventually tried to heal him in a hot bath in Kamogawa 加茂川に湯屋.
When he was better, they even organized a large good-bye party for him.
Then he returned to China.
(As told in the Konjaku Monogatari legends.)


. Hieizan 比叡山 and its Tengu .

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Zegaiboo-emaki Zegai-bô emaki 是害坊絵巻 Zegaibo Emaki scroll
"The Story of the Mountain Goblin Zegaibo" - 'The Tale of Zegaibo'



- Look at the 12 scrolls here:
- source : New York Public Library -


Zenkaiboo 善界坊絵巻 Zenkaibo Emaki

This image shows a Japanese Tengu, bringing a large radish (daikon 大根) for the fare-well party of Zenkai-Bo.


source : kuusan26bu/39210836


- quote -
Frühe bildliche tengu-Dar­stel­lun­gen (etwa die des diabolischen Zegai-bō, s.u.) zeigen jeden­falls einen Krähen-tengu. Erst später setzte sich die Auf­fas­sung durch, dass nur die min­deren tengu vogel­gestal­tig seien. Gleich­zeitig sollen alle tengu aus Eiern schlüp­fen.


Zegaibō, ein chinesischer Krähen-tengu in Mönchsgewand
(Zegai-Bo, a chinese craw tengu in a monk's robe)

- - - Zegaibō emaki - - -
Gefangennahme und Züchtigung des Zegaibō, eines tengu aus China, durch Tempelknaben auf Berg Hiei.
Illustration einer mittelalterlichen Legende, die von einem chinesischen tengu erzählt, der im Jahr 966 Japan besucht, um sich hier mit den wunderkräftigsten Mönchen auf Berg Hiei zu messen. Er erleidet dabei drei mal hintereinander herbe Demütigungen.
Schließlich erbarmen sich japanische tengu ihres Kollegen, pflegen ihn gesund und schicken ihn zurück nach China.
- source : univie.ac.at/rel_jap -


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Zegaibo Ekotoba 是害坊絵詞 / Zenkaibo Ekotoba 

- quote
STUDIES ON THE SCROLL-PAINTINGE "ZEGAIBO EKOTOBA."
BY SHINSEI MOCHIZUKI - AUGUST 1935

There are two different types of scroll-painting called "Tengu Zoshi." One represents the reckless conduct of the monks in the monks in the seven great monasteries, satirizing them by an allegrory of tengu, the Japanese name for an imaginary deity of Chinese origin; this we call "Tengu Zoshi E."

The other which is known as "Zegaibo Ekotoba" or "Zenkaibo Ekotoba", depicts a humorous story about the tengu. A scroll which is now in the possession of Viscount Aoyama has hithreto been claimed as the only one to represent this kind of "Tengu Zoshi" known to us, but unfortunately, this scroll seems to be incomplete.

Mr. Shinsei Mochizuki, who has lately discovered a complete version of the "Zegaibo Ekotoba" consisting of two scrolls in the treasury of the Manjuin Monastery in Kyoto, has taken them up for the first time in the present issue of our publication.
The scroll in question are painted in color on paper and measure 24.1 cm. in height. (The complete scrolls are reproduced on P1. VIII-XI) The inscriptions written at the end of the second scroll indicate that they have been copied three times so far, first in 1308, second in 1329, and third year of Bunwa (1354).

Contrary to the scroll in the possession of Viscount Aoyama which is painted timidly in the orthodox way, the present pictures are more or less free from orthodox formalities and painted in an easy manner. They show an unique force of expression which is far beyond the manneristic painting of the Tosa school of those days.
- source : tobunken.go.jp/~bijutsu



是害房と日羅房 Zegai-Bo and Nichira-Bo


. . . CLICK here for Photos of the scroll !
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- quote -
Battling Tengu, Battling Conceit:
Visualizing Abstraction in the Tale of the Handcart Priest

By Kimbrough, R. Keller


The sixteenth- or early seventeenth-century Tale of the Handcart Priest tells of an eccentric Zen practitioner's encounter with the legendary Tarobo, a tengu of Mt. Atago who is attracted to the priest because of the priest's excessive pride. This article provides a close reading of The Tale of the Handcart Priest in its historical and literary context, drawing upon such related works as the noh plays Kuruma-zo and Zegai, the otogizoshi Matsuhime monogatari and Itozakura no monogatari, and the puppet play Shuten Doji wakazakari. I discuss the significance of tengu, carts, and handcart priests in Japanese textual and pictorial sources from the twelfth through eighteenth centuries, as well as the possibilities for psychological realism in the larger world of medieval Japanese fiction. Taking a psychoanalytic interpretive approach, I argue that in Kuruma-zo soshi and other medieval and Edo-period literary sources, characters' struggles with tengu can often be read allegorically as externalized depictions of those characters' internal struggles with their own "demons" of conceit.
- source : questia.com/library -

- reference : handcart priest -


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. - - - Join my Tengupedia friends on facebook ! - - - .

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. 四十八天狗 - 48 famous Tengu of Japan .

. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

- #zegaibo #chinesetengu #Zenkaibo -
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Daibutsu Kyoto

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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .
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Daibutsu in Kyoto 京都の大仏様

. daibutsu 大仏 Big Buddha statues .
- Introduction -
The best known are in Nara and Kamakura.

There have been four BIG BUDDHA statues build in Kyoto in the course of history, but all of them are now lost.


京都大仏御殿盛衰記 - 村山修一



(『都名所図絵』より、赤丸内に大仏の顔が見える)
Miyako Meisho Zue : The face of the Daibutsu can be seen in the red circle.
Now there is a public park : 大仏殿跡緑地公園

- reference source : shihobe505/archives -


. Hookooji, Hōkō-ji 方広寺 Hoko-Ji .

Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 ordered its construction to appease the souls of the Tensho earthquake victims, January 18, 1586, with a magnitude of M 7.8.
He had a sculptor from China make a huge wooden statue. 
It was then covered with clay and laquer and finally gold foil.

Hideyoshi was determined that the capital city should have a Daibutsu temple to surpass that of Nara.
He is reputed to have claimed at the outset that he would complete construction in half the time it took Emperor Shōmu to complete the Great Buddha of Nara.



The hall and the statue was destroyed by the Bunroku earthquake before it was finished in August 14,1596.
Two years later, Hideyoshi died.

His son Toyotomi Hideyori 豊臣秀頼 re-built the temple and statue, this time to be cast in bronze to make it last.
But it was again destroyed by fire in 1602.
The next reconstruction was finished in 1612.
That was when the huge bronze bell was cast.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !



 Construction of the Great Buddha by Hideyoshi
秀吉の大仏造立 - 河内将芳 Kawauchi Masayoshi

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- quote
The 24-meter-high Kyoto Daibutsu (no longer extant) of Hōkōji Temple 方広寺 was built during the reign of Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 (1536-1598).
Toyotomi founded this Tendai-sect temple and ordered the creation of its giant monument to honor the spirit of his dead mother and his ancestors. After his own death it became the Toyotomi mortuary temple. Construction of the giant statue reportedly took only three years (as compared to 20 years for the Nara Daibutsu).
The wood image was made by noted sculpture Kōshō 康正 (1534-1621), the head of the Shichijō Bussho 七条仏所 (Seventh Avenue Atelier), a major sculpting workshop of the Keiha school located in Kyoto. However, the statue was destroyed by an earthquake soon after its completion in 1596.
Another statue was soon commissioned, this time in bronze, but it was destroyed in an accidental fire during the casting process in 1602.
A third effigy was commissioned between 1609 and 1616, but it was ruined in another natural disaster in 1622.
A fourth statue, this time made of wood, was created in 1664 by the Buddhist sculpture Genshin 玄信 (active mid-17th century, part of Kōshō’s lineage). It was destroyed by lightning in 1789.


Tokyo National Museum

All that remains of this once spectacular landmark is a small wooden maquette (hinagata 雛形) attributed to Genshin.
Note:
Tokyo National Museum attributes the maquette to sculptor Fujimura Chūen 藤村忠円, a student of Genshin. But research by Chō Yōichi (published in TNM’s own journal, #554, June 1998) explains why Genshin is the likely creator.


Mode, Attributed to Genshin 玄信.

--- Says scholar Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey
in A Song for the Shogun: Engelbert Kaempfer and 17th-c. Japan:
“The only detailed pictorial record of the Kyoto Daibutsu is from the drawings of the German physician Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1712), who stayed in Japan from 1690 to 1692. In his writings, he noted the particulars, from the ’long bovine ears’ and the ’frizzy hair’ to the fact that there would be space enough for three Japanese mats on its outstretched palm. He measured out the distances for a more detailed record, and noted that the width between the shoulders was equivalent to fifteen paces.”
(Site Editor: The effigy he witnessed must have been the statue built in 1664.)

--- Says scholar Jens Hvass in 1999:
..... The Daibutsu at Tōdai-ji in Nara in 752.
..... The Daibutsu in Kamakura in 1252.
The third big Buddha figure was erected in Kyoto in the late 16th century by the big upstart in Japanese history, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-98). It was even bigger than its two predecessors were, and by that time in Japanese history, legitimization through architectural manifestations seems to have become an unquestionable necessity of power positions.”
- source : Mark Schumacher



Sketch of Hōkōji Daibutsu by Kaempfer - wikipedia -

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- quote -
京都 ~まぼろし大仏の旅~
東福寺
・京都の町の南東、鴨川のほとりにある正面橋。大仏様の真正面にあったことから名づけられたという。
The bridge Shomen-bashi 正面橋 "Front Bridge" was in the front of the Daibutsu Temple.

・橋の先にある方広寺は400年ほど前に創建された由緒あるお寺。戦国の頃の文化財も数多く残されている。
・明治時代に撮影した写真に大仏殿が写っている。高さ約10m、江戸時代の終わり頃に木で造られた。胸から上だけだったが、親しみのあるお顔。
・江戸時代の京都を描いた絵図にも大仏様が載っている。大仏殿を造るため、木材を川から引き上げている。京都の大仏はたくさんの町の人たちの力で造られたが、4代目の大仏だという。
..... more
- reference source : NHK Historia September 2016 -

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Postal stamp : Daibutsu Mae
京都大仏前郵便局 風景印
- reference source : humi.sakura.ne.jp/paco -
方広寺の大釣鐘 Hoko-Ji and the Big Bell


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. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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2016/09/24

Koshoji Iwafune Tochigi

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Kooshooji 高勝寺 Kosho-Ji, Tochigi
岩船山 高勝寺 Iwafunesan, Iwafune-San Kosho-Ji




〒329-4307 栃木県下都賀郡 岩舟町静3 / Tochigi, Shimotsuke-gun, Iwafune-machi, Shizuka 3

This is one of the three most important temples in honor of
Jizo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩.

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高勝寺 History of Kosho-ji
Priest Myogan, living in Daisen, Tottori, had a desire to meet a living Jizo (a Buddhist saint) and so, went on a trip to east Japan. He traveled and looked for Jizo, and eventually arrived at Iwafune. As dusk fell, he found a mountain hermitage in the middle of the rock, where a man called Igabo lived. Igabo kindly gave him a night’s lodging, and told him a living Jizo would come out on the top of the rock on the 18th and 24th of every month. The priest was happy to hear that and asked Igabo if he could stay at the hermitage for a while.

One day a villager visited Igabo to help him plow a field on the following day. Then a different villager came and told him that he wanted Igabo to thatch his roof the next day. Then another villager appeared and asked him to plane boards for his house, also on the next day. Then yet another villager asked Igabo to dig a well —you guessed it— the next day. Igabo answered “Sure!” to all of them. Myogan murmured, “It looks strange. He received all these requests, but how can he do everything in one day?”

The next morning, Igabo left the hermitage and began to do the work. The priest Myogan followed Igabo secretly. But soon Myogan was given the slip. So, he went around the places where Igabo should have been helping. To his surprised, Igabo was working very hard at all the places he promised.

Igabo came back to the hermitage at night. Myogan thought Igabo must be exhausted from the hard work. But he said in a happy voice, “Let’s get up early and go to see a living Jizo tomorrow!”

Early in the morning, Myogan and Igabo scrambled up the rocky mountain and reached the summit. Just at that moment, the sun rose and birds chirped. Myogan sat on a rock and prayed wholeheartedly that a living Jizo would come. Finally, brilliant light was released from the sky and a Jizo appeared. Myogan felt supreme bliss for a while. When Myogan came to, he found himself alone. Myogan was so happy that he didn’t realize Igabo had left.

After that Myogan returned to his homeland. And the next year, he came back to Iwafune to see Igabo. But he couldn’t find the hermitage Igabo had lived in. He asked some villagers about Igabo, but no one knew about the hermitage or Igabo. He was sad. And then he went to the place the hermitage used to be, and found a stone Jizo statue there. Myogan looked at the Jizo statue carefully, and suddenly realized that the face of the Jizo was exactly the same as Igabo. Eventually, Myogan understood that the living Jizo was Igabo himself!

Myogan established a temple on the rock of Iwafune and enshrined the Jizo statue in 771. After that, Myogan protected the temple and did his best for the villagers, much as Igabo had. Since then, the number of Jizo statues has been increasing, due to the donation of believers.

Tochigi Iwafune-san Kosho-ji Temple

Iwafune-san Rock looks like a boat left on the broad Kanto Plain.
The rock itself has been deified and is worshiped as a god. It is considered to be the place where spirits get together and come back to the next world. The top of the rock has been a sacred place for more than 1200 years and Kosho-ji Temple has been a great support to people living in all over the Kanto district.
- - - - - Jizo statues
There are huge numbers of Jizo statues in this temple. People believe Jizo bless barren couples with children, help mothers with safe deliveries and bless the children with health—all through divine grace. The origin of these Jizo statues is based on the folklore described below.
- - - - - Nio-mon Gate
- - - - - Three-story pagoda
- - - - - Rocky cliffs
The highest point of the rock is 173 meters above sea level. The edges of this rocky mountain are all cliffs, with Jizo statues scattered around along the edges. ...
- source : Tomoko Kamishima 2013 -



shooshin Jizoo 生身の地蔵 living Jizo at 下野の岩船 Mount Iwafune in Shimotsuke (Tochigi).
Iwafune Jizoo 岩船地蔵 Iwafune Jizo

Guseiboo Myoogan 弘誓坊 明願 Guseibo Myogan, priest from 大山 Mount Daisen, Tottori,
came to Tochigi in 777 (宝亀8).

Igaboo 伊賀坊 Igabo, Iga-Bo


Later 徳川吉宗 Shogun Yoshimune had the main hall rebuilt, but it was lost in a fire in 1926.
The pagoda dates back to 1751.



Mount Iwafunesan

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shuin 朱印 temple stamp




- Homepage of the temple kousyouji
- source : www.iwafunesan.com

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- Yearly Festivals 年中行事 -



During the Spring and Autumn Equinox, many visitors come to look at the many Jizo statues to find the face of a loved one.


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. Jizoo Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 Jizo Bosatsu Kshitigarbha .
- Introduction -

. Legends about Jizo Bosatsu - 地蔵菩薩 .

. O-Mamori お守り Amulets and Talismans .


. Japan - Shrines and Temples - Index .


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- - #Koshoji #iwafunetochigi #myoganpriest #igabopriest -
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2016/09/16

Priest Sanshu and Tengu

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Priest Sanshu deceived by a Tengu
From the Buddhist collection of teachings and tails, the Konjaku Monogatarishū written between 1120 and 1140.
Sanshuu 三修禅師 Sanshu Zenji
伊吹山の天狗と三修禅師



The Tengu from Mount Ibukiyama 伊吹山の天狗 


source : toki.moo.jp/gaten
滋賀県米原市と岐阜県揖斐川町の境 Mountain on the border of Shiga and Gifu.
Written as 伊吹山、息吹山、伊夫岐山、夷服山、胆吹山、五十葺山、伊富貴山、伊服岐山
or Ifuki イフキ
There lived a Tengu called 飛行上人 Higyo Shonin "the Flying Saint".
三朱沙門飛行上人 - Sanshu Samon Hiko Shonin
(samon means priest)

He was very light, only san shu 三朱 "three shu" (一匁の四分の一 one-fourth of 3,75 g)
and therefore could easily fly from mountain to mountain. He lived for many hundred years.
One day on this way to come to help the Empress, who was ill, he stopped on a rock near Lake Biwa, performed some rituals and what do you say, the Empress was healed.

Another story about his activities is told below.

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- quote
A tengu deceives the Buddhist priest Sanshu.
James Kemlo

There once lived a Buddhist priest on Mount Ibuki of Mino Province. This priest was named Sanshu and he knew nothing but the reciting of holy Buddhist sutras and spent many years doing only this.

He taught his students only to recite sutras, but many were worried that Sanshu neglected to teach anything else.

One night, when he was reciting a sutra, Sanshu heard a clear melodic voice call to him from the sky saying, “Because you have been so devoted, reciting so many sutras for me, I will come to fetch you tomorrow at the hour of the sheep (1:00pm to 3:00pm).”

Excited at this, the next day Sanshu purified himself according to the Buddha, told his students to recite a sutra with him and, facing the west, waited for the coming of the Buddha.



At the hour of the sheep, he saw Amida Butsu (Amitābha) “The Buddha of Immeasurable Life and Light,” in all his shining gold radiance, appearing from the mountains in the west. Bosatsu (Bodhisattvas) surrounded him, flying about him chanting beautiful holy words and playing beautiful music. Showers of lotus petals were falling from the sky and carpeting the ground.

In the midst of bright purple clouds, Kannon Bosatsu (Avalokiteśvara), “The Buddhist Goddess of Compassion,” appeared and gave the priest a golden cushion. The Bosatsu carried him away to the west on the golden cushion.

After witnessing this, the students who were left watching began to value even more the reciting of holy sutras.

However, seven days later, when another priest went into the mountains, he heard someone shouting out sutras from the top of a tall cedar tree. He looked carefully and saw Sanshu, naked, tied to the top of the tree reciting sutras. Climbing to the top of the tree he untied Sanshu and asked what had happened.

“Why did you untie me? The Buddha told me to wait here for a bit until he comes back to fetch me.” Sanshu became insane, and died three days later.

This is the story of a priest who, because he lacked the wisdom of the Buddha and knowledge of butsuhõ (the Buddha Dharma), was deceived by a tengu. The condition of maen (ma-en) (deception by Ma, the demon deceiver) and the state of sanbõ no kyõgai (The Three Treasures) are not the same.

Because Sanshu lacked the wisdom of the Buddha, he could not tell the difference between the two, and was therefore deceived. Sanshu could not differentiate between Ma and The Buddha, so he was led astray by a tengu.

Incorrect Buddhist practice leads to conditions that attract evil, that attract the powers of Ma. Wrong minded Buddhist practice leads to destruction. Only with correct practice and formal training under an accomplished Buddhist master attuned to the powers of The Buddha can one hope to achieve merit. One can only hope to correct en (the conditions of a previous life) through The Buddha’s wisdom.

From the Buddhist collection of teachings and tales,
the Konjaku Monogatarishū written between 1120 and 1140.
- source : © James Kemlo

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Mount Ibuki is 1377 m high.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

................................................................................. Iwate 岩手県

In the village of 唐丹村 Tonimura the deity O-Shirasama comes to help is a home burns or there is a forest fire. This is related to legends of 飛行というと天狗 a Tengu called Hiko or the 仙人 saints of the mountains and other Buddhist deities.

. O-Shirasama, oshirasama おしらさま、オシラサマ "White Deity" .

................................................................................. Nara 奈良県

A man called 他惣治 Tasoji from 山添村 Yamazoe village once saw a huge firefly of more than 30 cm long. He followed it into the forest all the way to the top of 神野山 Mount Konoyama. There the firefly turned into a Tengu and Tasoji became its disciple. He studied for three days and three nights, and learned how to fly. When he came back to the village, he found his fellow villagers looking for him everywhere.
Tasoji could fly from Nara to Ueno in just two hours. He was now called

Tasoji Tengu 他惣治天狗


source : vill.yamazoe.nara.jp/folktales

Other sources say Tasoji was invited by
Iga no Ao-Tengu 伊賀の青天狗 the Green Tengu from Iga
and
Konoyama no Aka-Tengu 神野山の赤天狗 the Red Tengu from Konoyama .


................................................................................. Tokushima 徳島県

In the 板野郡 Itano district at the back of Oasahiki Shrine there lived a Tengu. If someone would stay with him for one year, eat only fruit of the forest trees an wild plants, he would be able to fly freely and become a 仙人 mountain saint, never to die. But the humans are usually threatened by this Tengu and he places them on a wooden door (toita) and carries them back to their home. Therefore those who came back are called
toita sennin 戸板仙人 Mountain Saint of the Wooden Door

. Oasahiko Jinja 大麻比古神社 Oasahiko Shrine .
Naruto, Tokushima



toita with Yokai monster decorations

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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. 四十八天狗 - 48 famous Tengu of Japan .

. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

- #sanshuandtengu #sanshupriest #ibukiyama -
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Dantokubo Tengu

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Dantokuboo 檀特坊 / 壇特坊 Dantokubo, Dantoku-Bo
アマノイワフネダントクボウ / 天岩船壇特坊 Amanoiwafune Dantokubo

He is one of the
. 四十八天狗 48 Tengu of Japan .

He is mentioned in a script named Tengukyoo 天狗経 Tengu Sutra
of the 祈祷秘教.
His whereabouts are not clear, but most probably he is from
大阪府 田原村 Osaka, Tawaramura village
at 田原村の岩船神祠 the Iwabune Shrine.

田原村石船山 Tawara Iwabuneyama at 河内国河上哮峯 Kawachi no Kuni, Takerugamine


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Amanoiwafune Ama no Iwafune, Ame no Iwafune
天の岩船 / 和の斎船 / 天の磐船 / あまのいわふね / アマノイワフネ
- reference : 天岩船 -

According to Nihon Shoki 日本書紀 Chronicles of Japan, it is a boat made of stone that came flown down from the sky. It carried the deity 櫛玉饒速日命 Kushitama Nigihayahi no Mikoto (櫛玉饒速日 Kushitama Nigihayahi).
Or
the deity 天火明命 Ama no Honoakari no Mikoto (鐃速日命).
He is the child of 天忍穂耳尊 Ama no Oshihomimi no Mikoto. Ancestor deity 尾張連 Owari no Muraji.

Or
it is a stone boat that floats on the Amanogawa 天の川 "River of Heaven", the Milky Way


- quote
Honoakari
According to Nihongi, one of three kami born to Konohana no Sakuyahime after spending a single night cohabiting with Ninigi.
Honoakari is claimed as the first ancestor of the clan called Owari no Muraji, but differing birth orders are described in the various traditions transmitted by Nihongi. According to Kojiki and two of the "alternate writing" traditions related by Nihongi, Honoakari was the first offspring born to Amenooshihomimi and Yorozuhatahime (daughter of Takamimusuhi), while the second son was Ninigi.
Kojiki and an "alternate writing" transmitted by Nihongi state that the kami's name was Amenohoakari no mikoto, and Nihongi tradition goes on to claim that the offspring of this kami, Amanokaguyama, was remote ancestor of the Owari no Muraji.

Another "alternate writing" in Nihongi likewise gives the name Amaterukuniteruhiko Hoakari as remote ancestor of the Owari no Muraji.
The Shinsen shōjiroku provides the names of two kami, Honoakari no mikoto and Amenohoakari no mikoto, and since the two are associated with differing lineages, it would appear that the tradition includes two separate kami with similar names.
- source : Nishioka Kazuhiko, Kokugakuin 2005


Iwafune Jinja 磐船神社
大阪府交野市私市9丁目19-1 / Osaka, Katano, 19-1 Kisaichi 9 Chome

The main object of veneration is a huge stone boulder
Ame no Iwafune 天の磐船 (あめのいわふね)
The boulder is about 12 meters long and 12 meters high.
There is no "main shrine", since Stone is the deity. In front of the stone is a small sanctuary for prayers.



The Deity related to this place is Nigihayashi no Mikoto, grandchild of Amaterasu. The deity used a boat to come down to earth, and the boat then turned into this boulder. Amaterasu had ordered him to rule Japan, then called Nakatsu no Kuni in Toyoashihara (now Nara).

- quote -
神社の起源は不明であるが、天照国照彦天火明奇玉神饒速日尊(あまてるくにてるひこあめのほあかりくしたまにぎはやひのみこと = 饒速日命)が天の磐船に乗って河内国河上の Takerutamine in Kawachi 哮ヶ峯(たけるがみね)に降臨されたとの伝承がある。 交野に勢力を保っていた肩野物部氏という物部氏傍系一族の氏神であり、一族が深く関わっていたといわれている。
This boulder has been the subject of reverence of the 山岳信仰 mountain faith and 住吉信仰 Sumiyoshi faith and also relates to Buddhist deities 神仏習合.
There was a small road for the pilgrims
磐船街道 Iwafune Kaido.
- reference source : wikipedia -

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Tengukyoo 天狗経 Tengu Kyo, Tengu Sutra

A Sutra recited by the Shugendo priests. It is known since the Muromachi period.
It contains the names of 48 Tengu.
Altogether there are 十二万五千五百 125500 Tengu in Japan.

on aromaya tengu sumanki sowaka, on hirahiraken, hirakennou sowaka

- quote -
天狗は修験道と結びつき、密教的な要素を濃くしていく。
修験者たちが、日本全国の霊山から天狗たちを招聘するために唱えるという経文が天狗経。

「南無大天狗小天狗十二天狗有摩那(うまな)天狗数万騎天狗、先づ大天狗には、
愛宕山太郎坊、妙義山日光坊、比良山次郎坊、常陸筑波法印、鞍馬山僧正坊、英彦山豊前坊、比叡山法性坊、大原住吉剣坊、横川覚海坊、越中立山縄乗坊、富士山陀羅尼坊、天岩船檀特坊、日光山東光坊、奈良大久杉坂坊、羽黒山金光坊、熊野大峰菊丈坊、吉野皆杉小桜坊、天満山三尺坊、那智滝本前鬼坊、厳島三鬼坊、高野山高林坊、白髪山高積坊、新田山佐徳坊、秋葉山三尺坊、鬼界ヶ島伽藍坊、高雄内供奉、板遠山頓鈍坊、飯綱三郎、宰府高桓高森坊、上野妙義坊、長門普明鬼宿坊、肥後阿闍梨、都度沖普賢坊、葛城高天坊、黒眷属金比羅坊、白峰相模坊、日向尾股新蔵坊、高良山筑後坊、医王島光徳坊、象頭山金剛坊、紫尾山利久坊、笠置山大僧正、伯耆大山清光坊、妙高山足立坊、石鎚山法起坊、御嶽山六石坊、如意ヶ岳薬師坊、浅間ヶ岳金平坊、
総じて十二万五千五百、
所々の天狗来臨影向、悪魔退散諸願成就、悉地円満随念擁護、怨敵降伏一切成就の加持、
をんあろまや、てんぐすまんきそわか、をんひらひらけん、ひらけんのうそわか」

この経文には、全部で48の天狗が登場する。
天狗経は室町後期にはすでに存在していたらしい
- reference source : jomon.org/jisho -



This was the "Tengu scripture" of the "Secret Mantra Prayer".
Tokyo Ravens Volume 6 : Chapter 5: Competition of Magic
- source : wattpad.com -

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Tengukyo Sutra of the Edo period
Lists 48 Tengu. The most important one is from the Shugendo line of Shikoku, 石鎚山 Ishizuchisan (Ishitsuchizan) in Ehime. Its most important Shugendo priest is En no Gyoja.
Hookiboo 石鎚山法起坊 Hokibo

- quote -
江戸時代に書かれた「天狗経」と呼ばれるものがあります。
ここには、全部で48の天狗が書かれていますがこの天狗たちは、四国石鎚山修験系と言われるそうです。
全ての天狗の原点は、石鎚山にあったのです。西日本の一番高い場所、石鎚山の天狗岳に今も残る天狗の姿。
それは、役行者だったのです。 いしづちさん
- reference source : makild.exblog.jp -


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. 四十八天狗 - 48 famous Tengu of Japan .

. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

- #dantokubo #amanoiwafune -
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2016/09/08

Zenkibo Tengu

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Zenkiboo Zenkibō 前鬼坊 Zenkibo, Zenki-Bo
那智滝本前鬼坊 Nachi no Takimoto Zenkibo
大峰山前鬼坊 Ominesan Zenki-Bo



CLICK for more information

役行者 En no Gyoja is usually flanked by a couple of two demons,
the husband Zenki 前鬼 and his wife Goki 後鬼


These demons promised En no Gyoja, a Shugendo priest at Mount Ominesan in Nara, to protect the pilgrims of the area. They had five children, whose families in the x-th generation up to this day have five mountain huts where the pilgrims can rest during their walk from Oomine to Kumano.
The family business is going on for more than 1300 years now. Gokijo 後鬼助 san, in the 61 generation, lives in Osaka now and comes back every weekend and holidays to take care of the pilgrims.

I have written more about En no Gyoja and Yoshino here:
. Yoshinoyama - 吉野山 Yoshino Mountains - .

Zenki 前鬼 and Goki 後鬼
The following names were given to them by En no Gyoja after he had saved them from their demon ways
and turned them into good souls are:

Zendooki 善童鬼(ぜんどうき) Zendoki / 義覚/ 義学 Gikaku - Gigaku
Myoodooki 妙童鬼(みょうどうき)Myodoki / 義玄 Gigen


Zenki was born in 奈良県吉野郡下北山村 Shimokitayama village in Yoshino. - - 前鬼の里 Zenki no Sato.
Zenki represents the positive 陽 YO aspect and is depicted as a red oni 鬼 demon holding an iron ax 鉄斧. He used to walk in front of En no Gyoja and hacked the path free.
He is also depicted with a kind of straw rucksack 笈.

His wife Goki was born in 奈良県吉野郡天川村 Tengawa villge in Yoshino.
represents the negative 陰 IN aspect and is depicted as a blue/green demon.
She holds a flask with ritual water 理水 and carries a rucksack with seeds.

Together they symbolize 陰陽 the Yin and Yang of things, or the A-Un 阿吽, Alpha and Omega, the beginning and end of all things.

Their five children are - - - 真義、義継、義上、義達 and 義元.

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奈良・大峰山の鬼たち The Demons from Omine, Nara

- reference source : toki.moo.jp/gaten -

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- quote -
Mount Ōmine - 大峰山 Ōmine-san
a sacred mountain in Nara, Japan, famous for its three tests of courage.
Officially known as Mount Sanjō (山上ヶ岳 Sanjō-ga-take),
it is more popularly known as Mount Ōmine due to its prominence in the Ōmine mountain range. It is located in Yoshino-Kumano National Park in the Kansai region, Honshū, Japan.
The temple Ōminesanji,
located at the top of the mountain, is the headquarters of the Shugendō sect of Japanese Buddhism and the entire mountain is part of a pilgrimage and training ground for the yamabushi.
The monastery at Mount Ōmine
was founded in the 8th century by En no Gyōja, as a home for his new religion of Shugendō. Shugendo literally means "the path of training and testing," and is based on the self-actualization of spiritual power in experiential form through challenging and rigorous ritualistic tests of courage and devotion known as shugyo.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Since 1788, a Sake brewery in Nara produces rice wine in their memory.
- reference source : komesou.com/nihonnsyu/syoujou -

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source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/teravist

- reference : 前鬼坊 -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

............................................................................... Nara 奈良県

En no Gyoja met a couple of Oni who were eating humans. He asked them not to do that any more but they did not listen to him. He hid in a cave but they wanted to give him human flesh to eat even there.
Now 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O comes along and pressured the couple not to eat humans any more. Now they promised to change their ways.
Zenki went to 洞川 Dorogawa (now a famous hot spring), and Goki went to 十津川 Totsukawa .

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御所市 Gose
Zenki and Goki once lived on 葛城山 Mount Katsuragisan and together with the Deity 一言主神 Hitokotonushi they were strong leaders of the region.
. the Deity Hitokotonushi 一言主 .

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大峯山 Ominesan
In some parts of the Omine region, the forest people are called 笈 oi : 前笈 and 後笈.
oi is a kind of rucksack, made of wood or bamboo in former times.
They villagers are very strong and robust and carry the luggage of visitors. They look almost like Oni and some say they are the descendants of Zenki and Goki.

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鬼取町 Onitori / 生駒郡 Ikoma
At 生駒山 Mount Ikomasan、En no Gyoja had a dream given to him by 孔雀明 Kujaku Myo-O.
He should capture the two Oni from the foot of Ikomasan and turn them into decent beings. He stayed in prayer for 21 days and on the last day, with 不動緊縛の法 a special ritual of Fudo Myo-O he could capture them.
So the Oni cut off their hair and became the pious disciples of En no Gyoja.

The mountain is now called Onitorisan 鬼取山 "Mountain of capturing the Demons",
and the village is still called that way, 鬼取 Onitori.



At the temple 髪切山慈光寺 Kamikiriyama, Jiko-Ji, masks of the Red and Green Oni are kept in honor and rituals are held.
During the annual festival, these two masks are worn by specially elected men and lead a parade through the region.
Kamikiriyama means "the mountain where they cut off their hair".

鬼取山(又は鬼取獄)
- reference source : geocities.jp/iko_kan2/ikoma-oni -


CLICK for more photos !

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信貴山 Shigisan
When En no Gyoja practised austerities at Mount Shigisan in 673, there was a couple of huge demons of more than three meters high with long fangs. But En no Gyoja subdued them and took away their supernatural powers.
They begun to take care of him and help him in his life as Zenki and Goki.

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天川村 Tenkawa
At the home of the 柿阪秀元氏 Kakisaka Hidemoto family, on the eve of the Setsubun ritual in spring, they place ritual water at the entrance and prepare a special seat for the Oni to take a rest.
They do not pierce the head of a sardine (a custom to drive away the Oni), and they call
"Fuku wa Uchi, Oni wa Uchi" May good luck come in, may the Demon come in!
The family is said to have Zenki and Goki as their ancestors.

. setsubun 節分 "the seasonal divide" .
Usually people call:
fuku wa uchi 福は内(ふくはうち)"Good luck, come in!"
oni wa soto 鬼は外(おにはそと)"Demons, get out! "


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吉野 Yoshino 
En no Gyôja journeyed to the Mino'o Waterfall in Osaka, where he met the Bodhisattva Ryûju. He erected a temple to Ryûju called Mino'o Temple
Then he tried to convince the local Shinto deity, Hitokotonushi, to help him build a 石橋 stone bridge extending from Mt. Katsuragi to Mt. Yoshino.
Hitokotonushi only worked during the night and hid his face during the daytime. Thus En no Gyoja became angry at the slow pace of the god's work, and threw him into a valley. The angry god then petitioned the emperor to send armies after En no Gyôja, to arrest him, claiming that the monk sought to rebel against the throne. Gyôja escaped the armies easily, flying away on his clouds, but, after they captured his mother instead, he was forced to surrender himself.
He was exiled to Izu Ôshima, but escaped his exile, flying to Mt. Fuji. .....
- reference : wiki.samurai-archives.com -


大和葛城山久米の岩橋伝説 - The Legend of the Stone Bridge at Kume, Katsuragisan
- reference source : toki.moo.jp/gaten -


There is also a river called 前鬼川 Zenkigawa and the Fudo Nanae waterfall 不動七重滝.
- reference and photos : riko.naturum.ne.jp -



- quote -
Fudo Nanae Fall
was chosen as one of the 100 most beautiful waterfalls of Japan. Fed by the Zenkigawa River, water cascades down in seven stages, falling 100m from the top to the bottom and providing a majestic natural view.
Early summer and fall are especially good seasons to see the picturesque beauty of the scenery.
- source : pref.nara.jp/nara_e -


............................................................................... Osaka 大阪府
箕面市 Mino

On 摂津の箕面山 mount Minosan in Settsu (Hyogo) there lived a couple of Oni.
The husband had red eyes and the wife a yellow mouth. They had five children. They grabbed human children and ate them. To change their ways, En no Gyoja banned the youngest of their children in a cave. The parents came to En no Gyoja and asked him where their child was. They would never eat human children again if he would let them have the kid back.
Finally he told them were it was and all of them left the region.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database 妖怪データベース -
ゼンキ,ゴキ

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- - - - - H A I K U - - - - -

下草を薙ぎ行く前鬼後鬼の裔
shitakusa o nagi-yuku zenki goki no ei

cutting the thicket
as they go along - descendants
of Zenki and Goki


右城暮石 Ushiro Boseki (1899 - 1995)

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前鬼にも呑せて行や香需散
炭太祇

卓にたつ前鬼が肩に雪霏々たり
横山白虹

夏の霧噴き捲く前鬼後鬼像
猿橋統流子

夢に出し前鬼と後鬼春の山
角川春樹

屠蘇酌めり前鬼後鬼の山長者
青畝

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. - - - Join my Tengupedia friends on facebook ! - - - .

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. 四十八天狗 - 48 famous Tengu of Japan .

. Tengu 天狗と伝説 Tengu legends "Long-nosed Goblin" .

. - yookai, yōkai 妖怪 Yokai monsters - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Mingei 民芸 Regional Folk Art from Japan .

- #zenkibo #zenkigoki -
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